A nation (a word that comes from Latin and means "to be born") is a human community with certain shared cultural characteristics and that often share the same territory and state. A nation is also a political conception, understood as the subject in which the sovereignty of a State resides.
In history, the concept as we understand it today was born at the end of the 18th century when the Contemporary Age began and the first formulations about what a nation is and how it takes place in political movements began to be elaborated. These studies are related to the periods of Enlightenment and, more precisely, to the French Revolution and then the American Revolution .
It is often difficult to define the characteristics that constitute a nation as such, but it is based on the fact that the members of one share the same awareness of being constituted as a political body differentiated from others based on their cultural coincidences. In general, these coincidences can be ethnic, linguistic, religious, traditional and / or historical. And this is sometimes added to belonging to the same territory.
This set of coincidences and common awareness regarding political unity is often called national identity . This national identity is essential to achieve the cohesion of the components of these peoples, since it is as distinctive and representative as the national symbols themselves. It is worth noting that the migratory phenomena of today have motivated both the integration of the individuals of a nation within other towns and the contrasting tendency to accumulate in specific neighborhoods or areas in a city or region, almost as a safeguard of cultural identity own of that nation.
Therefore, the concept of nation is complex and sometimes the criteria differ to distinguish it as such. For example, differences between pronunciations or dialects can constitute two people as belonging to different nations. In the same way, it is common that two people living in different geographical locations can be considered as members of the same nation.
The term "nation" is often confused with that of "State" or even with the idea of an ethnic, cultural or linguistic group even if it does not have an ethical-political backing. This difference is perceived by understanding that some nations, such as the gypsy, do not have their own State (organization with defined institutions and their own borders). In return, plurinational states are recognized, such as Bolivia in America, India in Asia or South Africa in the African continent.
There are different types of nation, for example, the liberal, the romantic, the socialist, the fascist and the national-socialist. Most of the current nations of America and Europe are governed by liberal models, within the framework of republican systems with different nuances of each people. The socialist nations that persist in the 21st century include China, Cuba or Vietnam, among others. Fascist and national-socialist models became extinct in World War II. In certain specific cases, it is interesting to note that the national identity of some peoples has motivated the existence of very specific types of nations that are difficult to define. Thus, the Tuareg nation persists with its customs and >