Chapultepec Peace Agreements - Definition, Concept and What it is
In 1992 Chapultepec Castle located in the capital of Mexico signed a peace agreement between the government army of El Salvador and a guerrilla group of Marxist orientation, the FMLN (Farabundo Marti Front for National Liberation). Both parties had been the main actors in an armed conflict that began in 1980 and ended in 1992. Apart from these two military forces, also involved ultra-right armed groups, the well-known Death Squads.
Causes and consequences of civil war
The civil war in El Salvador had two main causes: deep social inequalities and land ownership in the hands of an oligarchy. At the international level, El Salvador had strategic value for Soviet and American interests.
The war in the Central American country had effects on the whole of society. It is estimated that 75,000 people died (mostly belonging to the civilian population ), antipersonnel mines left thousands injured and there was a massive displacement of the rural population to the capital. To appease the climate of conflict, the army and the guerrillas accepted the UN's measurement:
Main contents of the Chapultepec Peace Agreements
Two years before their final signature, the representatives of the Salvadoran government and the guerrillas agreed to respect human rights, since for years all kinds of atrocities had been committed (selective killings, disappearances, kidnappings ...).
The signing of the peace had to overcome an important obstacle: the problem of land distribution (this initial obstacle was overcome by introducing into the Constitution a series of changes related to forms of agrarian property).
The signatories of the peace agreement were the representatives of the conservative party "Nationalist Republican Alliance" and the top leaders of the FMLN
Among the main agreements reached are the following: the creation of a national civilian police, the opening of an agency that ensures the fulfillment of human rights and the formation of a Supreme Court of Justice.
Finally, two years after the Chapultepec Peace Agreements the FMLN was integrated into Salvadoran political life. Since then this formation has ruled the nation in various legislatures. Despite the national reconciliation, 25 years after the end of the conflict, the economic compensation of the thousands affected is still pending, as well as the reparation of the victims.
Photo: Fotolia - Sangoiri